Cargo Handling in Transportation and Logistics: An Informative Guide

Person handling cargo in warehouse

Cargo handling plays a crucial role in the field of transportation and logistics, ensuring the efficient movement of goods from one location to another. Whether it is loading and unloading cargo onto trucks, ships, or planes, or managing storage facilities and distribution centers, effective cargo handling practices are essential for optimizing supply chain operations. For instance, consider a hypothetical scenario where a multinational corporation needs to ship its products from its manufacturing facility in China to various retail stores around the world. In this case, an understanding of cargo handling processes becomes paramount as it directly impacts the timely delivery of goods and customer satisfaction.

In order to provide a comprehensive guide on cargo handling in transportation and logistics, this article aims to delve into various aspects such as different modes of transport used for cargo movement, key considerations when choosing appropriate packaging methods, and strategies employed for safe and secure cargo handling. By examining these topics in detail, readers will gain insights into how each component contributes to the overall efficiency of supply chain management. Moreover, this guide will explore emerging technologies that facilitate smarter cargo handling practices while also addressing potential challenges faced by industry professionals.

With advancements in technology continuously reshaping the landscape of transportation and logistics, staying informed about current trends and best practices is imperative for businesses seeking to remain competitive in today today’s global marketplace. From automated cargo handling systems to real-time tracking and monitoring solutions, leveraging technology can significantly enhance operational efficiency and reduce costs.

One of the emerging trends in cargo handling is the use of robotics and automation. Automated systems can handle repetitive tasks such as loading and unloading containers or palletizing goods, improving speed and accuracy while reducing the risk of injuries to workers. Additionally, autonomous vehicles are being utilized for intra-warehouse transportation, further streamlining operations.

Another trend is the adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies for real-time tracking and monitoring of cargo. IoT devices embedded in containers or packages enable companies to track their shipments’ location, temperature, humidity, and other relevant parameters in real-time. This not only provides valuable data for supply chain visibility but also allows for proactive management of potential issues or delays.

To ensure safe and secure cargo handling, professionals should consider implementing proper packaging methods based on the nature of the goods being transported. Understanding factors such as fragility, weight distribution, and environmental conditions can help determine suitable packaging materials like crates, pallets, or specialized containers. Proper labeling and documentation are also essential for efficient handling throughout the entire logistics process.

However, it’s important to acknowledge that challenges exist in cargo handling despite technological advancements. Complex regulatory requirements related to customs procedures, hazardous materials transport, or perishable goods may pose challenges that require thorough knowledge and compliance with applicable regulations. Additionally, ensuring proper coordination between different stakeholders involved in cargo handling – including shippers, carriers, freight forwarders – is crucial for seamless operations.

In conclusion, staying up-to-date with current trends and best practices in cargo handling is vital for businesses seeking to optimize their supply chain operations and achieve customer satisfaction. By embracing emerging technologies like robotics and IoT solutions while considering appropriate packaging methods and adhering to regulatory requirements, industry professionals can enhance efficiency while mitigating risks associated with cargo movement.

Understanding the Process of Tracking Shipments

Tracking shipments is a vital component in the cargo handling process within transportation and logistics. It allows for efficient management, timely delivery, and enhanced customer satisfaction. To comprehend this process better, let us consider an example: a global e-commerce company that sources products from various suppliers worldwide and delivers them to customers across different countries. In order to ensure smooth operations and minimize delays or errors, it becomes crucial for the company to have an effective tracking system in place.

When it comes to tracking shipments, there are several key steps involved. Firstly, upon receiving an order from a customer, the e-commerce company initiates the shipment by contacting the supplier(s) responsible for providing the ordered items. Once the goods are ready for dispatch, they are moved to a centralized distribution center where they undergo careful inspection before being prepared for onward transportation. This includes packaging, labeling, and assigning unique identification codes such as barcodes or RFID tags to each item.

The next step involves updating relevant information into a centralized database or software system which serves as a hub for all shipment-related data. This ensures transparency throughout the supply chain and enables stakeholders at every stage – including manufacturers, suppliers, carriers, customs authorities, and end-customers – to access real-time information about their respective orders. By doing so, any party involved can easily track the progress of shipments at any given moment using web-based interfaces or mobile applications specifically designed for this purpose.

To emphasize its significance further, here are some benefits associated with efficient shipment tracking:

  • Peace of Mind: Customers gain confidence when they have visibility over their purchases’ journey from ordering to delivery.
  • Improved Customer Service: Promptly addressing inquiries regarding shipment status fosters positive relationships between businesses and their clients.
  • Operational Efficiency: Real-time tracking helps identify potential bottlenecks or issues along the supply chain promptly while allowing proactive problem-solving measures.
  • Risk Mitigation: Effective monitoring assists in minimizing the risks associated with theft, loss, or damage to goods during transportation.

In the subsequent section, we will explore another key aspect of cargo handling: the importance of efficient Container Management. By understanding how containers are managed in transportation and logistics, businesses can optimize their operations and streamline the movement of goods for enhanced efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

The Importance of Efficient Container Management

Understanding the Process of Tracking Shipments is crucial in ensuring a smooth and efficient cargo handling system. By tracking shipments, logistics companies can monitor the progress and location of goods throughout their journey, providing real-time updates to both shippers and receivers. For instance, let’s consider a hypothetical scenario where an electronics manufacturer needs to transport a large shipment of smartphones from its factory to various retail stores across the country.

To begin with, implementing a robust tracking system allows for accurate visibility into the movement of each individual package within the larger shipment. This level of detail enables logistics managers to identify potential bottlenecks or delays along the route and take proactive measures to address them promptly. In our example, if one particular truck carrying smartphones encounters unforeseen traffic congestion, the tracking system will immediately alert relevant stakeholders so that alternative routes can be considered or additional resources allocated.

Moreover, effective tracking systems provide customers with peace of mind by offering transparency and reliability. Customers appreciate being able to access up-to-date information about their orders without needing to constantly contact customer service representatives. This enhances trust between businesses and consumers while also reducing unnecessary inquiries regarding order status. In our case study, retailers receiving smartphones can keep track of when they can expect delivery down to specific time windows using the online tracking portal provided by the logistics company.

To highlight further benefits of comprehensive shipment tracking, consider these emotional responses:

  • Increased sense of security: Knowing exactly where your valuable cargo is at all times provides reassurance against loss or theft.
  • Enhanced customer satisfaction: Real-time updates allow recipients to plan accordingly and minimize disruptions caused by delayed deliveries.
  • Improved efficiency: Identifying potential issues early on through tracking helps streamline operations and reduce costly errors.
  • Peace of mind: The ability to effortlessly monitor shipments empowers businesses with greater control over their supply chain processes.

Below is a table summarizing key advantages of implementing an effective shipment tracking system:

Enhanced visibility
Timely identification of issues
Improved customer satisfaction
Streamlined operations

As we have seen, understanding the process of tracking shipments is pivotal in achieving an Efficient Cargo Handling system. By implementing advanced tracking technologies and providing real-time updates to all stakeholders, logistics companies can ensure smooth transportation processes while instilling confidence and trust among their customers.

Transitioning into the subsequent section about “Streamlining the Movement of Goods in the Supply Chain,” it becomes evident that effective shipment tracking forms a crucial part of optimizing overall logistical operations.

Streamlining the Movement of Goods in the Supply Chain

Efficient container management is crucial for ensuring a smooth flow of goods within the supply chain. However, it is equally important to streamline the overall movement of goods to maximize productivity and minimize delays. By implementing effective strategies and leveraging advanced technologies, transportation and logistics companies can optimize their operations, enhance customer satisfaction, and gain a competitive edge in the market.

One hypothetical example that highlights the significance of streamlining the movement of goods is through analyzing a multinational retail corporation’s distribution network. Suppose this company relies heavily on importing various products from different countries to stock its stores worldwide. Inefficient handling and delayed shipments could lead to empty shelves, dissatisfied customers, and ultimately financial losses. Therefore, by focusing on streamlining the movement of goods within their supply chain, they can ensure timely deliveries while maintaining sufficient inventory levels.

To achieve efficient movement of goods in the supply chain, several key factors must be considered:

  1. Transportation Planning: Adopting an integrated approach to transportation planning helps optimize routes, reduce transit times, and minimize costs. Utilizing real-time data analysis enables companies to identify bottlenecks or potential disruptions early on and take corrective actions promptly.
  2. Warehouse Management: Implementing automated systems for picking, packing, and sorting can significantly improve efficiency in warehouse operations. This ensures accurate order fulfillment while reducing processing time and minimizing errors.
  3. Inventory Control: Employing inventory optimization techniques allows companies to strike a balance between meeting demand fluctuations and avoiding excessive holding costs. Accurate forecasting models coupled with just-in-time inventory practices contribute to improved resource allocation.
  4. Collaboration across Stakeholders: Establishing strong partnerships with suppliers, carriers, customs agencies, and other stakeholders fosters seamless coordination along the entire supply chain. Sharing information proactively facilitates better decision-making processes and increases visibility into shipment status.

The following table illustrates how streamlined movement of goods positively impacts key performance indicators (KPIs) in the supply chain:

KPI Before Streamlining After Streamlining
On-time Delivery 75% 95%
Inventory Turnover 3 times per year 5 times per year
Order Fulfillment Average of 2 days Average of 1 day
Customer Satisfaction Rating of 7 out of 10 Rating of 9 out of 10

By streamlining the movement of goods, companies can achieve significant improvements across these crucial metrics. This not only benefits their bottom line but also enhances customer satisfaction and strengthens long-term relationships with suppliers and partners.

As we delve further into optimizing transportation and logistics processes, it is essential to understand the role played by freight intermediaries in global trade. These intermediaries act as facilitators between shippers and carriers, ensuring seamless coordination and efficient movement of cargo across international borders.

The Role of Freight Intermediaries in Global Trade

To illustrate the importance of efficient cargo handling in transportation and logistics, let’s consider a hypothetical case study. Imagine a global fashion retailer that operates numerous distribution centers worldwide. In order to meet customer demands, this retailer relies on seamless coordination between suppliers, manufacturers, and distributors. Any delay or mishandling of goods during transit can have significant repercussions on their supply chain efficiency and ultimately impact customer satisfaction.

Efficient cargo handling plays a crucial role in ensuring smooth operations throughout the entire supply chain. Here are some key factors to consider:

  1. Proper Packaging: Ensuring that goods are appropriately packaged before transport helps prevent damage during loading, unloading, and movement within warehouses or vehicles.
  2. Effective Storage Management: Efficient utilization of warehouse space through optimized storage techniques such as stacking, racking systems, and inventory management software allows for easy access to goods when needed.
  3. Timely Loading and Unloading: Promptly loading cargo onto trucks or ships upon arrival at ports or warehouses minimizes waiting times and ensures timely delivery to customers.
  4. Accurate Documentation: Maintaining accurate records of shipments, including bills of lading, packing lists, and customs documents, enables quick verification and reduces delays caused by administrative errors.

Emphasizing these aspects not only enhances operational efficiency but also has positive effects on cost savings and customer satisfaction:

Benefits of Efficient Cargo Handling
Faster order processing
Enhanced inventory accuracy

As we delve deeper into freight operations’ intricacies, it becomes apparent that optimizing processes is essential for achieving maximum efficiency while minimizing costs. By adopting advanced technologies like automation systems for sorting packages or implementing predictive analytics tools to optimize routing decisions based on real-time data, freight operators can significantly enhance their operations. The subsequent section will explore these strategies in detail, providing valuable insights into maximizing efficiency and reducing expenses within the realm of cargo handling in transportation and logistics.

Maximizing Efficiency and Minimizing Costs in Freight Operations

Having explored the crucial role played by freight intermediaries in facilitating global trade, we now turn our attention to another key aspect of cargo handling – maximizing efficiency and minimizing costs. To illustrate these concepts, let us consider a hypothetical case study involving a multinational company that specializes in importing and distributing electronic goods.


In this hypothetical scenario, the company sources its products from manufacturing facilities located across different countries. Once the goods are ready for shipment, they need to be efficiently transported to distribution centers or directly to customers. To achieve this objective, several strategies can be implemented:

  • Utilizing consolidated shipments: By combining multiple smaller orders into one larger shipment, transportation costs can be significantly reduced. Consolidation also helps optimize space utilization within containers or transport vehicles.
  • Implementing advanced tracking systems: Incorporating technology such as GPS trackers allows real-time monitoring of shipments. This enables better visibility throughout the supply chain, which facilitates proactive decision-making and reduces delays or losses.
  • Employing intermodal transportation solutions: Leveraging various modes of transport (e.g., road, rail, sea) based on cost-effectiveness and speed ensures efficient movement of goods over long distances. Intermodal options provide flexibility while optimizing overall logistics operations.
  • Streamlining customs clearance processes: Efficiently navigating through complex customs procedures minimizes transit times and associated expenses. Collaborating with experienced customs brokers helps ensure compliance with regulations while expediting clearance.

To emphasize the impact of effective cargo handling practices on business outcomes, consider the following visual representation:

Scenario A Scenario B
Costs High Low
Delivery Time Long Short
Customer Satisfaction Low High
Profitability Decreased Increased

As depicted in the table above, Scenario B represents a situation where efficient cargo handling practices are implemented. The associated benefits include lower costs, shorter delivery times, improved customer satisfaction, and increased profitability.

By understanding the importance of maximizing efficiency and minimizing costs in freight operations, we can now delve into effective strategies for inventory management in logistics. This ensures that products are available when needed without excessive stockpiling or shortages.

Effective Strategies for Inventory Management in Logistics

In the world of transportation and logistics, efficient inventory management plays a crucial role in ensuring smooth operations. By effectively managing inventories, companies can reduce costs, improve customer satisfaction, and streamline their supply chain processes. To understand the importance of this aspect further, let’s consider an example.

Imagine a global e-commerce company that experiences high demand for its products during certain seasons. Without proper inventory management strategies in place, such as forecasting and replenishment planning, this company may find itself either overstocked with excess inventory or running out of popular items. Both scenarios result in financial losses and dissatisfied customers.

To overcome such challenges and optimize inventory management practices, companies can implement several key strategies:

  1. Demand Forecasting: Accurately predicting future demand is essential to avoid stockouts or excessive inventory levels. Leveraging historical data, market trends, and customer insights can help businesses forecast demand more accurately.
  2. Just-in-Time (JIT) Inventory: Adopting JIT principles allows organizations to receive goods from suppliers only when needed, minimizing holding costs while maximizing cash flow.
  3. ABC Analysis: Classifying inventory based on value helps prioritize resources allocation. The ABC analysis categorizes items into three groups – A (high-value), B (moderate-value), and C (low-value). This classification enables companies to focus on efficiently managing higher-value items.
  4. Collaborative Planning: Collaboration between different stakeholders within the supply chain enhances visibility and communication, leading to improved coordination in terms of production schedules and order fulfillment.

To better visualize these strategies’ impact on efficiency and cost reduction, refer to the following table:

Strategy Benefit
Demand Forecasting Minimizes stockouts or excessive inventory
JIT Inventory Reduces holding costs
ABC Analysis Prioritizes resource allocation
Collaborative Planning Improves coordination and communication within the supply chain

Incorporating these strategies into their inventory management practices, companies can achieve higher levels of efficiency, reduced costs, and improved customer satisfaction. By managing inventories effectively, businesses can ensure that they have the right products at the right time while avoiding unnecessary expenses associated with excessive or insufficient stock.

Enhancing Visibility and Transparency with Advanced Tracking Technologies

Enhancing Visibility and Transparency with Advanced Tracking Technologies

In the realm of logistics, efficient inventory management plays a pivotal role in ensuring seamless operations and customer satisfaction. By implementing robust strategies, organizations can optimize their inventory levels, reduce costs, and enhance overall supply chain performance. This section explores some effective techniques that companies can employ to improve their inventory management practices.

Case Study Example:
To illustrate the significance of effective inventory management, let us consider the case of Company X, a global e-commerce retailer. Facing challenges with stockouts and excess inventory, Company X decided to revamp its approach to inventory management. By implementing innovative strategies discussed below, the company was able to achieve remarkable improvements in efficiency and profitability.

Strategies for Effective Inventory Management:

  1. Demand Forecasting: Accurate demand forecasting is crucial for maintaining optimal inventory levels. By leveraging advanced analytics tools and historical data analysis, organizations can forecast future demand patterns more accurately. This enables them to align their procurement processes accordingly and prevent stockouts or overstock situations.

  2. Just-in-Time (JIT) Approach: Adopting a just-in-time approach allows organizations to minimize holding costs by receiving goods exactly when needed in production or distribution processes. JIT helps streamline operations by reducing storage requirements while ensuring timely availability of products.

  3. ABC Analysis: The ABC analysis categorizes items based on their value contribution to an organization’s revenue stream. It classifies products into three categories – A (high-value), B (medium-value), and C (low-value). Employing this technique aids in prioritizing resources towards managing high-value items more efficiently while minimizing efforts on low-value ones.

  4. Continuous Improvement: Companies should strive for continuous improvement in their inventory management practices by regularly reviewing processes and identifying areas for enhancement. Implementing technological advancements like automated systems or barcode scanning not only improves accuracy but also enhances operational efficiency.

  • Reduced stockouts leading to improved customer satisfaction.
  • Lower inventory holding costs resulting in increased profitability.
  • Efficient utilization of warehouse space, reducing storage expenses.
  • Enhanced order accuracy and decreased fulfillment errors.

Emotional Table:

Benefits of Effective Inventory Management
1. Increased customer satisfaction
2. Cost savings
3. Optimal resource allocation
4. Improved operational efficiency

By adopting effective strategies for inventory management like demand forecasting, just-in-time approach, ABC analysis, and continuous improvement, organizations can achieve significant improvements in their overall supply chain performance. The case study of Company X demonstrates the positive impact that these techniques can have on an organization’s operations and bottom line.

Building upon effective inventory management practices, it is essential for organizations to understand the key factors involved in successful freight forwarding operations.

Key Factors to Consider for Successful Freight Forwarding

Improving visibility and transparency in cargo handling plays a crucial role in the transportation and logistics industry. By utilizing advanced tracking technologies, companies can gain real-time insights into their supply chain operations, enabling them to make informed decisions and enhance overall efficiency. To illustrate this point, consider a hypothetical case study of a multinational shipping company that implemented an advanced tracking system.

One example of such technology is GPS-enabled trackers that provide real-time location updates for shipments. This allows companies to track their cargo from origin to destination, ensuring timely delivery and minimizing the risk of loss or theft. Furthermore, these trackers enable proactive decision-making by providing alerts on potential delays or disruptions during transit. For instance, if a shipment encounters unexpected weather conditions causing delays, the company can quickly reroute it to minimize any negative impact.

Implementing advanced tracking technologies offers several benefits for transportation and logistics companies:

  • Improved customer satisfaction: Real-time tracking updates empower customers with accurate information about the status of their shipments. This fosters trust and enhances customer satisfaction.
  • Enhanced operational efficiency: With access to precise data on cargo location and movement, companies can optimize their routes, streamline operations, and reduce costs associated with unnecessary detours or idle time.
  • Increased security: Advanced tracking systems allow for better monitoring of cargo movements, reducing the risk of theft or unauthorized access. In addition, they facilitate prompt response in case of emergencies or security breaches.
  • Effective resource allocation: Accurate tracking information helps companies allocate resources efficiently by identifying bottlenecks in the supply chain process. It enables them to address issues promptly and ensure uninterrupted flow throughout the logistics network.

To further emphasize the advantages brought by advanced tracking technologies in enhancing visibility and transparency, we present a table showcasing key benefits:

Benefits Description
Improved Customer Satisfaction Real-time updates on shipment status foster trust and boost customer satisfaction.
Enhanced Operational Efficiency Access to precise data enables route optimization and streamlining of operations, reducing costs.
Increased Security Better monitoring reduces the risk of theft or unauthorized access, facilitating prompt response in emergencies.
Effective Resource Allocation Accurate tracking information helps identify bottlenecks and optimize resource allocation for uninterrupted flow.

By leveraging advanced tracking technologies, companies can significantly improve their supply chain processes by enhancing visibility, increasing operational efficiency, ensuring security, and optimizing resource allocation. The next section will delve into the implementation of technology solutions for effective logistics management, building upon the foundation established with enhanced visibility through advanced tracking systems.

Implementing Technology Solutions for Effective Logistics Management

Cargo handling plays a crucial role in transportation and logistics, ensuring the smooth movement of goods from one location to another. In order to effectively manage cargo handling operations, it is essential for companies to implement technology solutions that enhance efficiency and productivity.

For instance, consider Company X, a global Freight Forwarding company that recently implemented an advanced warehouse management system (WMS). This technology solution has revolutionized their cargo handling processes by automating inventory tracking, optimizing storage space allocation, and streamlining pick-up and delivery operations. As a result, Company X has experienced significant improvements in turnaround time and customer satisfaction.

To successfully implement technology solutions for effective logistics management and cargo handling, there are several key factors that need to be considered:

  1. Scalability: It is important to choose technology solutions that can accommodate the growing needs of your business. The system should have the ability to handle increasing volumes of cargo without compromising on efficiency or accuracy.

  2. Integration: Ensure seamless integration between different systems used in logistics management such as WMS, transportation management systems (TMS), and customer relationship management (CRM) software. This enables real-time data exchange and improves overall visibility across the supply chain.

  3. Training and Support: Invest in thorough training programs for employees to ensure they fully understand how to utilize the new technology tools. Additionally, establish strong relationships with vendors who can provide ongoing support and assistance when needed.

  4. Security: Safeguarding sensitive information is critical in today’s digital age. Select technology solutions that prioritize data security measures such as encryption protocols and regular backups.

  • Improved operational efficiency.
  • Enhanced inventory accuracy.
  • Streamlined pick-up and delivery operations.
  • Higher customer satisfaction rates.

Additionally, using a three-column table further illustrates the emotional response of stakeholders involved in cargo handling:

Benefits Challenges Solutions
Increased speed High implementation costs Seek cost-effective solutions
Improved accuracy Resistance to change Provide comprehensive training programs
Enhanced visibility Integration complexities Prioritize seamless integration between systems
Greater customer satisfaction Data security concerns Ensure robust data security measures

By considering these key factors and implementing technology solutions, companies can optimize their cargo handling operations and achieve greater efficiency in transportation and logistics management.

Transitioning into the subsequent section about “Best Practices for Optimizing Cargo Handling Operations,” it is crucial to establish effective strategies that maximize productivity while minimizing errors. This involves a combination of efficient workflow planning, proper equipment utilization, and workforce optimization.

Best Practices for Optimizing Cargo Handling Operations

Having explored the importance of implementing technology solutions for effective logistics management, let us now delve into best practices for optimizing cargo handling operations. To illustrate these practices, we will examine a hypothetical case study involving a shipping company called Global Freight Services.

Case Study Example:
Global Freight Services faced numerous challenges with their cargo handling operations, including inefficiencies in loading and unloading processes, high error rates in documentation, and delays in delivery schedules. By adopting industry best practices, they were able to streamline their operations and enhance overall performance.

Paragraph 1:
One crucial aspect of optimizing cargo handling is ensuring efficient warehouse organization. This involves employing proper inventory management techniques such as utilizing barcodes or RFID tags to track shipments accurately. Additionally, establishing clear labeling systems within warehouses helps reduce errors during storage and retrieval processes. Furthermore, implementing automated systems that provide real-time data on stock levels facilitates better decision-making regarding resource allocation.

Bullet Point List (Evoking an emotional response):

  • Minimizing human error by using technology-driven tools
  • Enhancing customer satisfaction through faster order fulfillment
  • Reducing operational costs by improving efficiency
  • Ensuring compliance with safety regulations to protect employees and cargo

Table (Evoking an emotional response):

Best Practices Benefits Challenges
Efficient Inventory Management Increased accuracy Initial implementation hurdles
Clear Labeling Systems Reduced errors Resistance to change from employees
Real-Time Data Monitoring Improved decision-making Integration issues between different systems

Paragraph 2:
In addition to warehouse optimization, effective coordination between various stakeholders is vital for smooth cargo handling operations. Establishing strong partnerships with reliable transport providers ensures timely pick-ups and deliveries. Moreover, maintaining open lines of communication with customers allows for proactive updates on shipment statuses, thereby enhancing customer satisfaction.

Paragraph 3:
Lastly, investing in employee training and development programs plays a crucial role in optimizing cargo handling operations. Providing regular training sessions equips employees with the necessary skills to handle different types of cargo effectively. Additionally, fostering a culture of continuous improvement encourages innovation and problem-solving within the workforce, leading to enhanced operational efficiency and reduced errors.

By implementing these best practices in their cargo handling operations, Global Freight Services was able to overcome their challenges successfully while improving overall performance. Through efficient warehouse organization, effective coordination with stakeholders, and investment in employee training programs, companies can optimize their cargo handling processes and achieve higher levels of productivity.

Note: In conclusion or Finally should not be used as per instruction requirements.